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REPLACING BRAKE PADS OR SHOES

If the brake pads or shoes are found to be too worn, they must be replaced immediately. Failure to do so could lead to insufficient braking the next time you drive your vehicle. Maintaining the brake system on your vehicle is of utmost importance for both you and your vehicle.

WARNING
Always replace the brake shoes in sets. Replace all four front pads/shoes at a time and all four rear pads/shoes at a time; NEVER replace the pads/shoes on one wheel only.

Disc Brake Pads

CAUTION
Brake dust may contain asbestos! Asbestos is harmful to your health. Never use compressed air to clean any brake component. A filtering mask should be worn during any brake repair.

Brake pad replacement should always be performed on both front or rear wheels at the same time. Never replace pads on only one wheel. When servicing any brakes use only OEM or better quality pads and parts. When the caliper is removed some brake pads stay with the caliper, others remain on the caliper mounting bracket. Use new pad mounting hardware (springs, anti-rattle clips, or shims) whenever possible to make for a better repair.

There are three general types of disc brake:

  1. Sliding caliper.
  2. Floating caliper.
  3. Fixed caliper.

    The fixed caliper design uses one or two pistons mounted on each side of the rotor (in each side of the caliper). The caliper is mounted rigidly and does not move.

    The sliding and floating designs are quite similar. In fact, these two types are often lumped together. In both designs, the pad on the inside of the rotor is moved into contact with the rotor by hydraulic force. The caliper, which is not held in a fixed position, moves slightly, bringing the outside pad into contact with the rotor.

    Floating calipers use threaded guide pins and bushings, or sleeves to allow the caliper to slide and apply the brake pads.

    There are typically three methods of securing a sliding caliper to its mounting bracket: with a retaining pin, with a key and bolt, or with a wedge and pin. On calipers which use the retaining pin method, you will find pins driven into the slot between the caliper and the caliper mount. On calipers which use the bolt and key method, a key is used between the caliper and the mounting bracket to allow the caliper to slide. The key is held in position by a lockbolt. On calipers which use the pin and wedge method, a wedge, retained by a pin, is used between the caliper and the mounting bracket.

    For pad removal purposes, fixed calipers are usually not removed, floating calipers are either removed or flipped (hinged up or down on one pin), and sliding calipers are removed.

SLIDING AND FLOATING CALIPERS

NOTE: On certain floating calipers it may be possible to remove one of the guide pins and pivot the caliper up or down to gain access to the brake pads. If you decide to do this, be sure that pivoting the caliper will not damage the flexible brake hose.

Fig. 1: Exploded view of typical brake pad mounting on the caliper bracket

Fig. 2: To remove the brake pads, first clean the brake master cylinder reservoir cap . . .

Fig. 3: . . . then remove it

Fig. 4: Using a vacuum pump, or some other method, remove some of the brake fluid from the reservoir

  1. Open the hood and locate the master brake cylinder fluid reservoir. Clean the area surrounding the reservoir cap, then remove the cap. Remove some of the brake fluid from the reservoir.
  2. Loosen the lug nuts on the applicable wheels.
  3. If servicing the front brakes, apply the parking brake, block the rear wheels, then raise and safely support the front of the vehicle securely on jackstands.
  4. If servicing the rear wheels, block the front wheels, then raise and safely support the rear of the vehicle securely on jackstands.
  5. Remove the wheels.
  6. Disconnect any electrical brake pad wear sensors.
    Fig. 5: Remove the disc brake caliper from the rotor

    Fig. 6: Be sure to note the positions of any clips or springs on the caliper

    NOTE: It is not necessary, and actually discouraged, to detach the brake hose from the caliper during this procedure. If you decide to detach the hose, it will be necessary for you to bleed your brake system.

  7. Remove and suspend the caliper with a piece of wire, cord or strong string. Make sure that it is not placing any stress on the brake hose.
  8. For caliper bracket-mounted pads, perform the following:
    1. If present, remove any anti-squeal shims noting their positions.
    2. Also, remove any anti-rattle springs that may be present. If these springs don't provide good tension, then replace them.
    3. Remove the brake pads from the caliper bracket by lifting the pad out by hand or with a slight tap of a hammer to help.
  9. For caliper mounted pads, perform the following:
    1. Some outer pads have tabs that are bent over the edge of the caliper, which hold the pads tight in the caliper. Straighten the tabs with pliers before trying to remove the brake pad from the caliper.
    2. Then, remove the outer brake pad by a slight tap to the back of the pad with a hammer.
    3. Other outer pads use a spring-clip to mount to the caliper. To remove this type of pad, press the pad towards the center of the caliper and slide it off. It maybe helpful to use a small prybar.
    4. Remove the inner pad by pulling it out of the piston.
      Fig. 7: Remove the outboard pad from the mounting bracket . . .

      Fig. 8: . . . then remove the inboard pad

      To install:

  10. Clean the caliper sliding area using a wire brush and spray brake cleaner.
    Fig. 9: Clean the caliper and mounting bracket with spray brake solvent and a wire brush

    Fig. 10: Apply a thin coat of high-temperature brake grease to the sliding surfaces of the bracket and caliper

  11. Lubricate the sliding area of the caliper and the pins with high temperature brake grease.
  12. Apply anti-squeal compound to the back side of both brake pads. Allow the compound to set-up according to the instructions on the package.
  13. Install one of the old brake pads against the caliper piston, then use a large C-clamp to press the piston back into its bore.
  14. Install any new hardware provided with the new pads.
    Fig. 11: A large C-clamp can be used to seat the piston in the caliper bore

    Fig. 12: Install all of the springs and clips in their original positions

    Fig. 13: When installing the caliper and pads, make sure not to pinch the sensor wire (if equipped)

  15. For bracket-mounted pads, perform the following steps:
    1. Install the pads onto the caliper bracket. Some pads are marked for position.
    2. Make sure that the notches or ears of the brake pads are properly engaged on the bracket.
    3. Place the caliper over the pads and onto the caliper mounting bracket.
    4. Install the caliper mounting hardware and anti-rattle clips. Tighten the guide pins or lockbolt to the proper specification.

      NOTE: It is a good idea to use some thread-locking compound (removable type) to the threaded fasteners of the caliper.

  16. For caliper mounted pads, perform the following:
    1. Install the inner pad by pushing the retaining fingers of the pad into the piston of the caliper.
    2. If the outer pad has a spring-clip, slide the pad over the edge of the caliper into the caliper frame.
    3. If you have the bent-tab style outer brake pad, then test fit the pad; it should fit tight. If the tabs do not secure the pad snugly in the caliper, place the pad on a piece of wood and tap the tab with a hammer to adjust it. It may take a few tries to get it right.
    4. Place the caliper with the pads onto the rotor and, if equipped, caliper bracket.
    5. Install the caliper mounting hardware and anti-rattle clips. Tighten the guide pins or lockbolt to the proper specification.

      NOTE: It is a good idea to use some thread-locking compound (removable type) on the threaded fasteners of the caliper.

  17. Connect any electrical brake pad wear sensors.
  18. Seat the brake pads, otherwise the vehicle may coast out of the work area and into traffic before the brakes become effective. It will take several pumps of the brake pedal to seat the pads against the rotor.
  19. If a firm pedal is not achieved, it may be necessary to bleed the brakes.
    Fig. 14: Clean the area around the reservoir to prevent contamination

  20. Check the brake fluid level in the reservoir and top off as needed.
  21. Install the wheels and snug the lug nuts.
  22. Lower the vehicle.
  23. Tighten the lug nuts fully.
  24. Road test the vehicle.
FIXED CALIPERS

NOTE: It is not necessary to remove the caliper to replace the brake pads on a fixed caliper.

  1. Loosen the lug nuts on the applicable wheels.
  2. If servicing the front brakes, apply the parking brake, block the rear wheels, then raise and safely support the front of the vehicle securely on jackstands.
  3. If servicing the rear wheels, block the front wheels, then raise and safely support the rear of the vehicle securely on jackstands.
  4. Remove the wheels.
  5. Disconnect any electrical brake pad ware sensors.
  6. Remove the pad retaining pins by pulling out the spring-clip or cotter pin, then use a punch and hammer to drive the pin out. Pins without a spring-clip or cotter pin, may be equipped with a spring steel collar on the head of the pin. To remove this style pin, just drive the pin out with a punch and hammer.
  7. On calipers with hold-down clips, remove the bolt that holds the clip down.
  8. Remove the pads from the caliper with a pair of pliers.
  9. To seat the pistons of a fixed caliper, use a piece of wood or a prybar with a rag wrapped around the end, then wedge it between the rotor and the piston and slide the piston into its seat.

    NOTE: It is helpful to replace one pad at a time, to reduce the risk of a piston coming out of its bore, which would lead to its needing to be rebuilt.

  10. Lubricate the sliding area of the caliper and the brake pads with high temperature brake grease.
  11. Apply anti-squeal compound to the back side of both brake pads. Allow the compound to set-up according to the instructions on the product.
  12. Insert the new pads into the caliper .
  13. If equipped, install the anti-rattle clip or retaining pin spring-clip or cotter pin. On pins with a spring steel collar, you must knock them in until seated against the shoulder in the caliper.

    NOTE: It is a good idea to use some thread-locking compound (removable type) to the threaded fasteners of the caliper.

  14. Connect any electrical brake pad wear sensors.
  15. Seat the brake pads, otherwise the vehicle may coast out of the work area and into traffic before the brakes become effective. It will take several pumps of the brake pedal to seat the pads against the rotor.

    NOTE: If a firm pedal is not achieved, it may be necessary to bleed the brakes.

  16. Check the brake fluid level in the reservoir and top off as needed.
  17. Install the wheels and snug the lug nuts.
  18. Lower the vehicle.
  19. Tighten the lug nuts fully.
  20. Road test the vehicle.
Drum Brake Shoes

On older cars and trucks, drum brakes were used on all 4 wheels. The only difference between the front and rear brakes is the presence of the parking brake assembly.

There are often a lot of springs, washers and clips involved with drum brakes. Usually these components are contained in brake hardware kits available at your local auto parts store. Purchase the kit and replace these parts whenever you replace the shoes. You should never reuse these parts.

CAUTION
Used brake components, especially springs, are worn out from repeated normal use, do not work as well as new parts, and are subject to failure. A worn spring or retainer may break and fall inside the drum causing damage to the shoes, drums and other parts, and possibly even causing the wheel to lock up (a very dangerous situation). Decide for yourself, but considering the risk to you and anyone riding in your vehicle it is cheap insurance to buy a new parts kit.

NOTE: It is not a good idea to disassemble the brakes on both sides at the same time. There are a lot of parts involved which must be replaced in a certain way. Work on one side at a time, only. If you become confused as to the particular position of the various brake parts during the brake shoe replacement, refer to the other side. Remember, however, the other side is a mirror image (everything is reversed).

While the brake shoes are off, pull back slightly on the wheel cylinder rubber caps. If any brake fluid leakage is evident, replace the defective wheel cylinder.

There is a tool that is, essentially, a large spring clamp used to make sure that the wheel cylinder pistons do not pop out while the shoes are removed. This occurrence is unlikely, but it's cheap insurance to use the tool.

Fig. 15: Spring clamp tools, such as those shown, can hold the wheel cylinder pistons in while servicing the shoes

Fig. 16: There are several varieties of spring removal and installation tools available, such as this straight one . . .

Fig. 17: . . . and this curved one-The shape of this tool is designed to provide more leverage during use

Fig. 18: This spring tool combines three different tools into one

Speaking of tools, brake work can often be frustrating because of the various springs and cables, which are often difficult to remove and install. Most of the work can be accomplished without the use of special tools, however brake tools are not expensive, can be purchased at most auto parts stores, and reduce the risk of personal injury and component damage. Also, brake tools can make the job a lot easier and quicker.

CAUTION
Since you'll be working around heavy-duty springs, the use of safety glasses is STRONGLY recommended!

MODELS WITH DUAL RETURN SPRINGS AND STARWHEEL-TYPE ADJUSTER

CAUTION
It is always a good idea to wear eye protection when working on brake components, especially drum brakes. Drum brakes often use powerful springs which could cause severe eye injury if they accidentally break.

Fig. 19: Exploded view of the most common GM rear drum brake setup

Fig. 20: Typical Ford dual return spring drum brake setup component identification

  1. Loosen the lug nuts on the applicable wheels.
  2. If servicing the front brakes, apply the parking brake, block the rear wheels, then raise and safely support the front of the vehicle securely on jackstands.
  3. If servicing the rear brakes, block the front wheels, then raise and safely support the rear of the vehicle securely on jackstands.
  4. Remove the wheels.
  5. Remove the brake drum.
    Fig. 21: Clean the brake shoe assemblies with a liquid cleaning solution, NEVER with compressed air

    Fig. 22: Identify the brake components and note their locations prior to disassembling the brake assembly

    Fig. 23: A specially-designed brake tool can make disconnecting the upper return springs much easier

    Fig. 24: Detach the upper return springs first from the anchor bolt, then from the brake shoes . . .

    Fig. 25: . . . then remove the adjusting cable from the guide, and the guide from the brake shoe

    Fig. 26: Remove the anchor block plate . . .

    Fig. 27: . . . then remove the hold-down springs, retainers and pins from both shoes

    Fig. 28: Lift the brake shoes off of the backing plate . . .

    Fig. 29: . . . then detach the parking brake cable from the lever

  6. Spray the brake assembly thoroughly with brake parts cleaner and let it dry. Similarly, spray the inside of the drum.
  7. Inspect the drum for wear and/or damage. Machine or replace as necessary. When machining, observe the maximum diameter specification. The maximum machining diameter is stamped into the drum. If the drum braking surface shows signs of blue discoloration, overheating is indicated. If the bluing is extensive the drum/hub assembly must be replaced. Extensive bluing indicates a weakening of the metal.

    NOTE: Note the location of all springs and clips for proper assembly. If you own an instant camera, it may be a good idea to take a picture of your brake assembly with the brake drum removed. This will make reassembly much easier.

  8. Completely retract the adjuster by rotating the starwheel to relieve tension on the lower spring.
  9. Remove the starwheel assembly and adjuster lever from between the two brake shoes.
  10. Using a brake spring tool, remove the 2 upper return springs.
  11. Remove the adjuster cable and cable guide.
  12. Remove the anchor block plate.
  13. Using a hold-down spring tool or pliers, while holding the back of the spring mounting pin with one hand, press inward on the hold-down spring plate, turn it slightly to align the notches and pin ears, then remove the hold-down spring assembly with your other hand. Remove the other hold-down spring in the same manner.
  14. Lift the shoes off the pins and remove the pins from the backing plate.
  15. Remove the parking brake link.
  16. Pull back on the parking brake cable spring and twist the cable out of the parking brake lever.
  17. The parking brake lever is held onto the rear shoe with a horseshoe clip. Spread the clip and remove the lever and washer.
    Fig. 30: Another way to remove the shoes for a dual spring setup is to pull the adjuster cable toward the shoe . . .

    Fig. 31: . . . and disconnect the pivot hook from the adjusting lever. Wind the starwheel all the way in

    Fig. 32: Disconnect the adjuster lever return spring from the lever . . .

    Fig. 33: . . . and remove the spring and the lever

    Fig. 34: Next, using a brake spring removal tool . . .

    Fig. 35: . . . disconnect the primary brake shoe return spring from the anchor pin

    Fig. 36: Repeat the procedure and remove the secondary return spring, adjuster cable and its guide

    Fig. 37: Also remove the anchor pin plate

    Fig. 38: Pull the bottoms of the shoes apart and remove the adjuster screw assembly

    Fig. 39: Press in the hold-down springs while holding in on the nail from behind, then turn the cup 90 . . .

    Fig. 40: . . . and release to remove the hold-down spring. Pull the nail out from the backing plate

    Fig. 41: Remove the primary (front) brake shoe from the backing plate . . .

    Fig. 42: . . . and the parking brake strut as well

    Fig. 43: Remove the secondary shoe hold-down, pull the shoe out then press up on the cable spring . . .

    Fig. 44: . . . and disconnect the parking brake cable from its lever by pulling it from the slot

    Fig. 45: It's a good idea to arrange all the parts in their approximate installed positions on a clean work surface

    To install:

  18. Thoroughly clean and dry the backing plate and starwheel assembly.
    Fig. 46: Thoroughly clean the backing plate, then be sure to lubricate the brake shoe bosses on the backing plate

  19. Lubricate the backing plate bosses, anchor plate surfaces, and starwheel threads and contact points with silicone grease. High-temperature wheel bearing grease or synthetic brake grease also work well for this application.

    CAUTION
    When applying lubricant to the backing plate and other components, do not use' so much grease that it may get spread onto the new brake shoes' friction material; this can adversely affect the performance of the new brake shoes and, therefore, increase vehicle stopping distance.

  20. Insert the parking brake lever pivot stud through the applicable hole in the rear shoe, then install a new wave washer and horseshoe clip. Squeeze the clip ends until the clip cannot be pulled from the lever pivot stud.
  21. Connect the parking brake cable to the lever.
  22. Position the rear shoe assembly on the backing plate and install the hold-down pin and spring assembly.
  23. Install the front shoe and secure it with the hold-down spring assembly.
  24. Position the parking brake link and spring between the front shoe and parking brake lever.
  25. Position the adjuster cable on the anchor plate pin, install the cable guide and lay the cable across the guide.

    CAUTION
    Be careful! Wear safety glasses during the next few steps, because they involve stretching heavy-duty springs. Getting hurt is very possible, even if you are careful.

  26. Make sure that the notch in the upper end of the shoe is engaging the wheel cylinder piston or piston pin.
  27. Position the rear shoe return spring into the guide and shoe hole, and, using a brake spring tool, stretch the spring onto the anchor plate pin. Make sure that the cable guide remained in place.
  28. Position the front shoe return spring in its hole in the shoe.
    Fig. 47: Exploded view of a typical starwheel adjuster mechanism-the adjusting levers may be stamped for left side and right side applications

  29. Make sure that the parking brake link is properly positioned and that the upper end of the shoe will enter the wheel cylinder or engage the wheel cylinder piston.
  30. Using the spring tool, stretch the spring into position on the anchor plate pin.

    NOTE: If the shoe doesn't properly engage the link or wheel cylinder piston, try again by removing the spring.

  31. Position the adjuster lever in its hole in the rear shoe and hook the cable to it.
  32. Position the lower spring in its hole in the front shoe. Now comes the hard part. Clamp a pair of locking pliers, like Vise Grips® on the spring and stretch it to engage the hole in the adjuster lever. Make sure that the cable stays in place on the guide.
  33. Check that the shoes are evenly positioned on the backing plate.
  34. Turn the starwheel to spread the shoes to the point at which the drum can be installed with very slight drag.
  35. Install the drum and adjust the starwheel until the drum can't be turned. Then, back off the adjustment until the drum can just be turned without drag.
  36. Install the wheels, lower the vehicle and check brake action. A firm pedal should be felt.
  37. To activate the adjusters, some vehicles require you to make several quick pulls on the parking brake lever. On most, however, several short back-ups, about 10 ft. (3m) each, should do it.
MODELS WITH A SINGLE UPPER SHOE-TO-SHOE RETURN SPRING-WITH LOWER ANCHOR PLATE

CAUTION
It is always a good idea to wear eye protection when working on brake components, especially drum brakes. Drum brakes often use powerful springs which could cause severe eye injury if they accidentally break. Also, Brake shoes may contain asbestos, which is a known cancer-causing agent. As soon as the drum is removed, generously spray the entire brake assembly with brake parts cleaner. Let it dry before proceeding. It's a good idea to wear a filter mask when doing brake work.

  1. Loosen the lug nuts on the applicable wheels.
  2. If servicing the front brakes, apply the parking brake, block the rear wheels, then raise and safely support the front of the vehicle securely on jackstands.
  3. If servicing the rear brakes, block the front wheels, then raise and safely support the rear of the vehicle securely on jackstands.
  4. Remove the wheels.
  5. Remove the brake drum.

    Spray the brake assembly thoroughly with brake parts cleaner and let it dry. Similarly, spray the inside of the drum.

    Inspect the drum for wear and/or damage. Machine or replace as necessary. When machining, observe the maximum diameter specification. The maximum machining diameter is stamped into the drum. If the drum braking surface shows signs of blue discoloration, overheating is indicated. If the bluing is extensive the drum/hub assembly must be replaced. Extensive bluing indicates a weakening of the metal.

    Fig. 48: Remove the brake drum for access to the brake components

    NOTE: Note the location of all springs and clips for proper assembly. If you own an instant camera, to make installation easier it may be a good idea to take a picture of your brake assembly with the brake drum removed.

  6. Remove the shoe-to-lever spring and remove the adjuster lever.
  7. Remove the auto-adjuster assembly.
  8. Remove the retainer spring.
    Fig. 49: Pliers can be used to disengage the hold-down spring retainer by rotating it until aligned with the pin tabs . . .

    Fig. 50: . . . then remove the retainer, spring and pin from the shoe and backing plate

  9. Using a hold-down spring tool or pliers, while holding the back of the spring mounting pin with one hand, press inward on the hold-down spring plate, turn it slightly to align the notches and pin ears, then remove the hold-down spring assemblies with your other hand.
    Fig. 51: Use a pair of needlenose pliers, or similar tool, to detach the upper return spring from both shoes . . .

  10. Remove the shoe-to-shoe spring.
    Fig. 52: . . . then remove the brake shoes from the backing plate . . .

  11. Remove the brake shoes from the backing plate.
  12. Using a flat-tipped tool, pry open the parking brake lever retaining clip. Remove the clip and washer from the pin on the shoe assembly and remove the shoe from the lever assembly.
    Fig. 53: . . . and detach the parking brake cable from the applicable brake shoe

    NOTE: On some vehicles, the parking brake actuating lever is permanently attached to the trailing brake shoe assembly. Do not attempt to remove it from the original brake shoe assembly or reuse the original actuating lever on a replacement brake shoe assembly. All replacement brake shoe assemblies for these vehicles must come with the actuating lever as part of the trailing brake shoe assembly.

    To install:

  13. Thoroughly clean all parts.
  14. On vehicles with the ratcheting upper mounted adjuster, clean and inspect the brake support plate and the automatic adjuster mechanism. Be sure the quadrant (toothed part) of the adjuster is free to rotate throughout its entire tooth contact range and is free to slide the full length of its mounting slot. Check the knurled pin. It should be securely attached to the adjuster mechanism and its teeth should be in good condition. If the adjuster is worn or damaged, replace it. If the adjuster is serviceable, lubricate lightly with high-temperature grease between the strut and the quadrant.

    CAUTION
    The trailing brake shoe assemblies used on the rear brakes of these vehicles are different for the left and right side of the vehicle. Care must be taken to ensure the brake shoes are properly installed in their correct side of the vehicle. Otherwise the brakes will probably malfunction, thereby creating a very dangerous condition. When the trailing shoes are properly installed on their correct side of the vehicle, the park brake actuating lever will be positioned under the brake shoe web.

  15. Thoroughly clean and dry the backing plate. Lubricate the backing plate at the brake shoe contact points. Also, lubricate backing plate bosses, anchor pin, and parking brake actuating mechanism with silicone grease. High-temperature wheel bearing grease or synthetic brake grease also work well for this application.
  16. Install the parking brake lever assembly on the lever pin. Install the wave washer and a new retaining clip. Use pliers, or the like, to install the retainer on the pin. If removed, connect the parking brake lever to the parking brake cable and verify that the cable is properly routed.
  17. Clean and lubricate the adjuster assembly. Make sure the nut-adjuster is drawn all the way to the stop, but the nut must NOT lock firmly at the end of the assembly.
  18. Install the brake shoes on the backing plate with the hold-down springs, washers and pins.
  19. Install the shoe-to-shoe spring.
  20. Install the retainer spring.
  21. Install the auto-adjuster assembly and install the adjuster lever and the shoe-to-lever spring.
  22. Pre-adjust the shoes so the drum slides on with a light drag and install the brake drum.
  23. Adjust the brake shoes, as described in Section 3 of this manual.
  24. Install the rear wheels.
  25. To activate the adjusters, some vehicles require you to make several quick pulls on the parking brake lever. On most, however, several short back-ups, about 10 ft. (3m) each, should do it.
  26. Adjust the parking brake cable.
  27. Lower the vehicle and check for proper brake operation.
MODELS WITH A SINGLE UPPER SHOE-TO-SHOE RETURN SPRING-WITH LOWER STARWHEEL-TYPE ADJUSTER
  1. Loosen the lug nuts on the applicable wheels.
  2. If servicing the front brakes, apply the parking brake, block the rear wheels, then raise and safely support the front of the vehicle securely on jackstands.
  3. If servicing the rear brakes, block the front wheels, then raise and safely support the rear of the vehicle securely on jackstands.
    Fig. 54: Identification of the typical components used on drum brakes which use dual return springs and a lower starwheel-type adjuster

  4. Remove the wheels.
  5. Remove the drums.
  6. Spray the brake assembly thoroughly with brake parts cleaner and let it dry. Similarly, spray the inside of the drum.
    Fig. 55: Remove the brake drum from the rear axle

    Fig. 56: Remove the parking brake lever retaining nut which is located behind the backing plate

    Fig. 57: Disconnect the adjusting cable from the anchor pin, guide and lever

  7. Inspect the drum for wear and/or damage. Machine or replace as necessary. When machining, observe the maximum diameter specification. The maximum machining diameter is stamped into the drum. If the drum braking surface shows signs of blue discoloration, overheating is indicated. If the bluing is extensive the drum/hub assembly must be replaced. Extensive bluing indicates a weakening of the metal.

    NOTE: Note the location of all springs and clips for proper assembly. If you own an instant camera, to make installation easier it may be a good idea to take a picture of your brake assembly with the brake drum removed.

  8. Remove the parking brake lever assembly from the backing plate.
  9. Remove the adjusting cable assembly from the anchor pin, cable guide and adjusting lever.
  10. Remove the brake shoe retracting springs.
    Fig. 58: Slide the parking brake lever out from its mounting

    Fig. 59: Disconnect the parking brake cable from the lever

    Fig. 60: Use an appropriate tool to disconnect the return springs from their retaining holes

    Fig. 61: Disengage the hold-down springs from the retaining clips on the backing plate

    Fig. 62: Back off the adjusting screw and remove it from the brake assembly

    Fig. 63: Spread the shoes apart and remove them from the backing plate

  11. Remove the brake shoe hold-down spring from each shoe.
  12. Remove the brake shoes and adjusting screw assembly.
  13. Disassemble the adjusting screw assembly.

    NOTE: It's a good idea to arrange all the parts in the approximate installed positions as a guide for reassembly.

    To install:

    Fig. 64: It is a good idea to lay the brake parts out in their positions on a clean work surface as they are removed

  14. Clean the ledge pads on the backing plate. Apply a light coat of silicone grease to the ledge pads (where the brake shoes rub the backing plate). High-temperature wheel bearing grease or synthetic brake grease (designed specifically for this) also work well. Also, apply grease to the adjusting screw assembly and the hold-down and retracting spring contacts on the brake shoes.
  15. Install the upper retracting spring on the primary and secondary shoes, then position the shoe assembly on the backing plate with the wheel cylinder pistons engaged with the shoes.
  16. Install the brake shoe hold-down springs.
  17. Install the brake shoe adjustment screw assembly so that the slot in the head of the adjusting screw is toward the primary (leading) shoe, along with the lower retracting spring, adjusting lever spring, adjusting lever assembly and connect the adjusting cable to the adjusting lever. Position the cable in the cable guide and install the cable anchor fitting on the anchor pin.
  18. Install the adjusting screw assemblies in the same locations from which they were removed.

    CAUTION
    Interchanging the brake shoe adjusting screws from one side of the vehicle to the other will cause the brake shoes to retract rather than expand each time the automatic adjusting mechanism is operated; this will create an extremely dangerous condition when driving the vehicle. To prevent incorrect installation, the socket end of each adjusting screw is usually stamped with an

    R or an

    L to indicate their installation on the right or left side of the vehicle. In some cases, the adjusting pivot nuts can be distinguished by the number of lines machined around the body of the nut. Two lines indicate a nut which should be installed on the right side of the vehicle; one line indicates a nut that must be installed on the left side of the vehicle.

    Fig. 65: Connecting the lower retracting spring can often be difficult-be careful and have patience

  19. Install the parking brake assembly in the anchor pin and secure with the retaining nut behind the backing plate.
    Fig. 66: This is how everything should look after assembly

  20. Adjust the brakes before installing the brake drums and wheels. Install the brake drums and wheels.
  21. To activate the adjusters, some vehicles require you to make several quick pulls on the parking brake lever. On most, however, several short back-ups, about 10 ft. (3m) each, should do it.
  22. Lower the vehicle and road test the brakes. New brakes may pull to one side or the other before they are seated. Continued pulling or erratic braking should not occur.
MODELS WITH A SINGLE U-SHAPED RETURN SPRING

CAUTION
It is always a good idea to wear eye protection when working on brake components, especially drum brakes. Drum brakes often use powerful springs which could cause severe eye injury if they accidentally break. Also, brake shoes may contain asbestos, which is a known cancer-causing agent. As soon as the drum is removed, generously spray the entire brake assembly with brake parts cleaner. Let it dry before proceeding. It's a good idea to wear a filter mask when doing brake work.

Fig. 67: Exploded view of a typical single U-shaped return spring drum brake setup

Fig. 68: Before removing any parts, make a note of their positions

  1. Loosen the lug nuts on the applicable wheels.
  2. If servicing the front brakes, apply the parking brake, block the rear wheels, then raise and safely support the front of the vehicle securely on jackstands.
  3. If servicing the rear brakes, block the front wheels, then raise and safely support the rear of the vehicle securely on jackstands.
  4. Remove the wheels.
  5. Remove the brake drum.
  6. Spray the brake assembly thoroughly with brake parts cleaner and let it dry. Similarly, spray the inside of the drum.
  7. Inspect the drum for wear and/or damage. Machine or replace as necessary. When machining, observe the maximum diameter specification. The maximum machining diameter is stamped into the drum. If the drum braking surface shows signs of blue discoloration, overheating is indicated. If the bluing is extensive the drum/hub assembly must be replaced. Extensive bluing indicates a weakening of the metal.

    NOTE: Note the location of all springs and clips for proper assembly. If you own an instant camera, to make installation easier it may be a good idea to take a picture of your brake assembly with the brake drum removed.

    Fig. 69: Depress and rotate the hold-down spring retainer . . .

    Fig. 70: . . . then remove the spring, retainer and pin from the backing plate and shoes

    Fig. 71: Remove the return spring from both brake shoes . . .

  8. Remove the return spring clip from the lower anchor block.
  9. Squeeze the upper ends of the return spring slightly and remove it from the shoes.
  10. Using a hold-down spring tool or pliers, remove the hold-down springs. While holding the back of the spring mounting pin with one hand, press inward on the hold-down spring plate, turn it slightly to align the notches and pin ears, then remove the hold-down spring assemblies with your other hand.
  11. Lift the shoes off of the pins, then remove the pins from the backing plate.
    Fig. 72: . . . then separate the shoes from the backing plate

  12. Remove the shoes and adjuster as an assembly.
    Fig. 73: A large pair of pliers can be used to disconnect the parking brake cable from the lever

  13. Pull back on the parking brake cable spring and twist the cable out of the parking brake lever.
  14. The parking brake lever is held onto the rear shoe with a horseshoe clip. Spread the clip and detach the lever and washer from the shoe. To install:
  15. Thoroughly clean and dry the backing plate assembly.
  16. Lubricate the backing plate bosses, anchor plate surfaces, and all contact points with silicone grease. High-temperature wheel bearing grease or synthetic brake grease (designed specifically for this) also work well.
    Fig. 74: Before brake shoe installation, clean the backing plate and adjuster mechanism, then apply high temperature grease at these points (arrows)

  17. Lubricate the parking brake lever pivot stud, then insert the pivot stud through the applicable hole in the rear shoe, then install a new wave washer and horseshoe clip. Squeeze the clip ends until the clip cannot be pulled from the lever pivot stud.
  18. Connect the parking brake cable to the lever.
  19. Position the front and rear shoe assemblies and adjuster on the backing plate, then install the hold-down pin and spring assemblies.
  20. Position the return spring in the shoes, rotate it down into position on the anchor block, and install the retaining clip.
  21. Turn the strut adjusting screw to spread the shoes to the point at which the drum can just be installed without drag.
    Fig. 75: This is what the brakes should look like when everything is installed correctly

  22. Install the drum.
  23. Adjust the brake shoes, as described in Section 3 of this manual.
  24. Install the wheels, lower the vehicle and check brake action. A firm pedal should be felt.
  25. To activate the adjusters, some vehicles require you to make several quick pulls on the parking brake lever. On most, however, several short back-ups, about 10 ft. (3m) each, should do it.

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